Charles III faces challenges at home, abroad – and even in defining what it means to be king

Charles III became the King of the United Kingdom on Sept. 8, 2022, having spent almost all of his 73 years preparing for this role, watching the example of his mother, Elizabeth II. Yet, he faces an uncertain course as monarch.

The legacy of Charles’ mother is complex. While her presence was a source of stability, the societies over which the British monarchy rules – both in the U.K.‘s four home nations and 14 additional countries in the Commonwealth – changed much over the 70 years of her reign.

Charles will have to make new choices about what it means to be a modern monarch, just as his mother adapted to the rapidly changing circumstances of the post-World War II years. His tenure on the throne will be defined by how he responds to new tensions in the relationship between sovereign, nations and people.

Challenge I: A global king?

Elizabeth was not just the queen of the United Kingdom. She was also the queen of Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Canada, Tuvalu, Australia and more than half a dozen other countries. Combined, more people live in these nations than in the U.K. All are now subjects of the new king.

Whether all these countries accept the new king in the same manner in which they accepted his mother remains to be seen. Many became independent nations near the beginning of Elizabeth’s reign during an era of rapid decolonization in the 1950s and 1960s. A majority of Britain’s former colonies, including India, Pakistan and all Britain’s African colonies, became republics right before Elizabeth took the throne or in the early years of her reign. In many of these places, the British monarchy was associated with the worst inequities of the empire. For example, the British Empire in India drew heavily on the symbolism of the British monarch as a paternalistic empress or emperor at the top of a power hierarchy that left no room for Indian sovereignty or political agency.

The post-colonial states that retained the monarchy did so for a number of reasons. It gave new governments a borrowed sense of legitimacy and constitutional flexibility because they could use ambiguity about the power of the queen’s representative, the governor general, a role that can potentially wield more power than the monarch can in Britain. In the former settler colonies – Australia, New Zealand and Canada – many citizens still spoke of Britain as “home” in the 1950s. This sentiment faded in subsequent decades, although it never entirely disappeared.

The tie to the monarchy also held the promise of promoting ongoing economic and political ties with the U.K. This promise was usually illusory: Elizabeth being Grenada’s queen did nothing to stop the United States from invading it in 1983.

Toward the end of Elizabeth’s reign, countries in the Caribbean in particular were beginning to reassess their relationship to the British crown. In late 2021, Barbados removed Elizabeth as queen and become a republic. In early 2022, Prince William and Kate Middleton were met with protesters when they visited the Caribbean, calling for reparations from the U.K. over its role in the transatlantic slave trade. Elizabeth’s death may serve as an opportunity for other nations to reexamine their relationship with the British monarchy and follow the Barbadian example, once the mourning period ends.